The fallopian tubes are the vital route between the egg and the uterus. During and after ovulation, if the fallopian tubes are blocked, pregnancy can't occur.
An examination of the fallopian tubes can assess whether this is the route cause of infertility.
There are several issues that can be pinpointed with a fallopian tube examination.
For one, a common congenital issue is that tubes can be twisted, or too weak to push the egg towards the uterus.
For another, certain inflammations, particularly those from chlamydia and gonorrhoea can cause clumps of cells in the fallopian tubes.
An inflammation in the ovaries and fallopian tubes, the appendices of the uterus (adnexitis) can have a long-term impact on women, including making her permanently infertile. Adnexitis predominantly results from inflamation in the vagina, which can ascend to the uterus and fallopian tubes. The disease can come on very quickly. Common symptoms include strong abdominal pain and fever. It's important that, id these symptoms arise, that medical help is sought quickly to avoid complications.
Diagnostic Laparoscopies (as well as Hysteroscopies) are the most modern methods used to diagnose infertility.
Laparoscopy allows doctors to examine the entire abdominal area including the ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus. A smear can be taken from the fallopian tubes and used whether any infections that may result in blockages have occurred.
This procedure is performed under anaesthetic and allows medical professionals to ascertain whether a number of possible causes are contributing to infertility. These causes could include myomas, endometriosis, agglutinations of the fallopian tubes and pathological changes of the ovaries.
During HYCOSY, a doctor inserts a thin catheter into the opening of the cervix, through which a kind of dye is applied. The doctor then uses this dye to identify any blockages in the fallopian tubes. HYCOSY is straightforward and no anaesthetic is required, however some women may experience cramping similar to period pain.
Functional fallopian tubes are an essential precondition for the occurrence of natural conception. If a blockage or issue with the fallopian tubes is thought to be the cause of infertility, patients can profit from the IVF fund, which can potentially cover 70% of the treatment and medication costs of IVF or ICSI treatment (provided a previous ligation of the tubes has not occurred).
Unfortunately, corrective surgery for fallopian tubes is not a common treatment. Microsurgery is occasionally offered, but it is very time-consuming and pregnancy success rates are low.
However, IVF is routine nowadays and has a pregnancy success rate of approximately 50% per cycle, and is therefore the treatment usually recommended first for cases of blocked fallopian tubes.